3263,ОГДЕН (Ogden) Петер Скен (1794-1854)

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Карл Йозеф Бе́гас (нем. Carl Joseph Begas; 30 сентября 1794, Хайнсберг — 23 ноября 1854, Берлин) — немецкий художник.

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Professional life

After a brief time with the American Fur Company, he joined the North West Company in 1809. His first post was at Île-à-la-Crosse, Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1810, and by 1814 was in charge of a post at Green Lake, Saskatchewan, 100 miles (160 km) south.

Ogden had frequent run-ins with the rival HBC employees and engaged in physical violence on several occasions. In 1816, HBC clerks reported that Ogden killed an Indian who had traded with the Hudson’s Bay Company. The Indian was «butchered in a most cruel manner,» according to HBC officer James Bird. Although many in the North West Company viewed this as a necessary part of living in the Northwest, the HBC viewed Ogden as a dangerous man whose actions were deplorable, especially considering his background as the son of a judge. Ogden was charged with murder, and the North West Company moved him further west to attempt to avoid any further confrontations with the HBC. He served at different posts in modern-day Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia for the next several years.

As a way of ending the ongoing strife between the two companies, the HBC and the North West Company merged in 1821. Ogden’s violent history placed the now larger HBC in a quandary. Some in the company management severely disliked and distrusted Ogden, but newly appointed governor George Simpson pushed for his reinstatement, arguing that he had done no more than many others during the «fur-trade wars.» Ogden was admitted to the reconfigured HBC with the rank of Chief Trader in 1823, and put in charge of Spokane House. In November 1824 he was put in charge of the Snake River Country of the HBC’s Columbia Department Expedition.

Between 1824 and 1830, Ogden led a series of expeditions to explore and trap in the Snake River country. One of the company’s objectives was to bring as many furs from this area as possible to the HBC so as to create a «fur desert». This would discourage inroads by American trappers and traders. The exploration trips included:

Jedediah Strong Smith, an American fur trapper and explorer, was the first American to cross the Great Basin in 1827. He traversed the basin west to east from the Sierra Nevada near Ebbetts Pass. Smith, however, missed Humboldt Lake and the Humboldt River and nearly died for lack of food and water. Ogden’s easier route following the river later became part of the California Trail.

In 1830, Ogden was sent north to establish a new HBC post named Fort Simpson near the mouth of the Nass River in British Columbia. He also managed an outpost on the south coast of Alaska. In 1834 he was promoted to Chief Factor, HBC’s highest field rank. He administered Fort Vancouver in the late 1840s. There Ogden fought successfully against American fur competition and successfully negotiated with local native tribes, including the Cayuse.

In 1847, Ogden averted an Indian war and successfully negotiated for the lives of 49 settlers taken as slaves by the Cayuse and Umatilla Indians after the Whitman massacre.

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Биография


Отец Карла, судья по профессии, готовил сына к работе в области юриспруденции, но уже в школе у Карла Бегаса обнаружились способности к рисованию.

В 1812 году он был отправлен в Париж для совершенствования в живописи. Проучившись 18 месяцев в студии Антуана-Жана Гро, начал работать самостоятельно.

В 1814 году его копия Мадонны делла Седиа была куплена прусским королём Фридрихом Вильгельмом III, что привлекло внимание к творчеству молодого художника. Бегас получил заказ на создание нескольких полотен большого формата на библейские темы и в 1825 году, после возвращения из Италии, продолжил писать картины, которые были размещены в церквях Берлина и Потсдама. Некоторые из них были на исторические темы, но большая часть изображала библейские сцены.

Бегас также занимался портретной живописью, пополнив королевскую портретную галерею серией портретов выдающихся прусских писателей. В 1846 году назначен придворным художником.

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Additional Biography Sources

Cline, Gloria Griffen, Peter Skene Ogden and the Hudson’s Bay Company, Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1974.

Phillips, Fred M., Desert people and mountain men: exploration of the Great Basin, 1824-1865, Bishop, Calif.: Chalfant Press, 1977.

Encyclopedia of World Biography. Copyright 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Литература


  • Бегас, Карл // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона : в 86 т. (82 т. и 4 доп.). — СПб., 1890—1907.
  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), «Begas, Karl», Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 3 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press

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